Professor Vanessa Patrick

Research Papers:

Cheema, Amar and Vanessa M. Patrick (2012), “Influence of Warm versus Cool Temperatures on Consumer Choice: A Resource Depletion Account,” forthcoming at the Journal of Marketing Research.

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Across five studies, the authors demonstrate that warm (versus cool) temperatures deplete resources, increase System 1 processing, and influence performance on complex choice tasks. Real-world lottery data (Pilot Study) and a lab experiment (Study 1) demonstrate the effect of temperature on complex choice: individuals are less likely to make difficult gambles in warmer temperatures. Study 2 implicates resource depletion as the underlying process; warm temperatures lower cognitive performance for non-depleted individuals, but don’t affect the performance of depleted individuals. Study 3 illustrates the moderating role of task complexity to show that warm temperatures are depleting and decrease willingness to make a difficult product choice. Study 4 juxtaposes the effects of depletion and temperature to reveal that warm temperatures hamper performance on complex tasks because of the participants’ increased reliance on System 1 (heuristic) processing.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2012),“How to Say "No": Conviction and Identity Attributions in Persuasive Refusal,” forthcoming at the International Journal of Research in Marketing.

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This research investigates the influence of refusal frames on persuasiveness in an interpersonal context. Specifically, the refusal frame “I don’t” is more persuasive than the refusal frame “I can’t” because the former connotes conviction to a higher degree. This perceived conviction is tied to the identity-signaling function of the refusal frame. Two studies demonstrate that 1) the “don’t” frame is more persuasive than the “can’t” frame, 2) perceived conviction mediates the influence of refusal frame on persuasiveness, and 3) attributions to the refuser’s identity explain perceived conviction.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2012),“”Don’t” versus “Can’t”: Refusal Strategies for Psychological Empowerment,” forthcoming at the Journal of Consumer Research.

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This research is based on the insight that the language we use to describe our choices serves as a feedback mechanism that either enhances or impedes our goal-directed behavior. Specifically, we investigate the influence of a linguistic element of self-talk, in which a refusal may be framed as “I don’t” (vs. “I can’t”), on resisting temptation and motivating goal-directed behavior. We present a set of four studies to demonstrate the efficacy of the “don’t” (vs. “can’t”) framing (studies 1-3) when the source of the goal is internal (vs. external; studies 2a and 2b), as well as the mediating role of psychological empowerment (studies 1, 2a, and 2b). We demonstrate this novel and effective refusal strategy with actual choice (study 1) and with behavioral intent (studies 2a and 2b) and also illustrate its applicability in the real world in a longitudinal intervention-based field study (study 3).

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2011), “Aesthetic Incongruity Resolution,” Journal of Marketing Research, 48(2), 393-402.

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Four studies demonstrate how consumers resolve the aesthetic incongruity that arises between a newly acquired product and the existing consumption environment. The novel insight on which this research is based is that the aesthetic incongruity involving products high in design salience is more likely than aesthetic incongruity involving products low in design salience to be resolved by accommodating the product within the consumption environment, often through additional purchases. Furthermore, the relative presence of frustration versus regret is shown to mediate the relationship between design salience and the decision to buy more.

Hagtvedt, Henrik and Vanessa M. Patrick (2011), “Turning Art into Mere Illustration: Concretizing Art Renders Its Influence Context Dependent,” forthcoming in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

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Broadly speaking, artworks are accorded a special significance and are recognized as powerful communication tools. In the current research, the authors posit that the “specialness” of artworks may be diminished simply by emphasizing that which is depicted in them. This emphasis results in the artwork being viewed as a mere illustration rather than a work of art. Specifically, the influence of an “artwork as art” is context independent, but the influence of an “artwork as illustration” is context dependent. The authors demonstrate this phenomenon in two experiments, in the context of products associated with artworks. In a third experiment, they further demonstrate that an abstract (concrete) mind-set aligns with the influence of an artwork as art (illustration).

Lacey, Simon, Henrik Hagtvedt, Vanessa M. Patrick, Amy Anderson, Randall Stilla, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Xiaoping Hu, Joao R. Sato, Srinivas Reddy, and Krish Sathian (2011), “Art for Reward’s Sake: Visual Art activates the Human Ventral Straitum,” NeuroImage, 55(1), 420-433.

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A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value.

Fedorikhin, Alexander and Vanessa M. Patrick (2010), “Positive Mood and Resistance to Temptation: The Interfering Influence of Elevated Arousal,” Journal of Consumer Research, 37(4), 698-711. Authors alphabetical.

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We investigate the interfering influence of elevated arousal on the impact of positive mood on resistance to temptation. Three studies demonstrate that when a temptation activates long‐term health goals, baseline positive mood facilitates resistance to temptation in (1) the choice between two snack items, one of which is more unhealthy, sinful, and hard to resist (M&Ms) than the other (grapes) and (2) the monitoring of consumption when the sinful option is chosen. However, this influence is attenuated when positive mood is accompanied by elevated arousal. We demonstrate that the cognitive depletion that accompanies elevated arousal interferes with the self‐regulatory focus of positive mood, decreasing resistance to temptation.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Laura A. Peracchio (2010), “"Curating" the JCP Special Issue on Aesthetics in Consumer Psychology: An Introduction to the Special Issue,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), 393-397.

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No abstract available for this.

Hagtvedt, Henrik and Vanessa M. Patrick (2009), “The Broad Embrace of Luxury: Hedonic Potential as a Driver of Brand Extendibility,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19, 608-618. Authors alphabetical. (Press coverage in TIME.)

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This research proposes a feelings-based account of brand extension evaluation and demonstrates that the promise of pleasure (hedonic potential) associated with luxury brands is a key driver of brand extendibility. In four studies, we contrast a luxury brand with a value brand. Both brand concepts lead to equally favorable brand evaluations, but the luxury brand concept results in more favorable brand extension evaluations due to the hedonic potential inherent in this concept. However, the luxury brand is shown to be sensitive to inconsistent brand cues, leading to diminished hedonic potential and consequently decreased brand and brand extension evaluations.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Hae Eun Chun and Deborah J. MacInnis (2009), “Affective Forecasting and Self-Control: When Anticipating Pride wins over Anticipating Shame in a Self-regulation context,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 537-45.

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We demonstrate that anticipating pride from resisting temptation facilitates self control due to an enhanced focus on the self while anticipating shame from giving in to temptation results in self-control failure due to a focus on the tempting stimulus. In two studies we demonstrate the effects of anticipating pride (vs. shame) on self-control thoughts and behavior over time (Studies 1 and 2) and illustrate the process mechanism of self vs. stimulus focus underlying the differential influence of these emotions on self-control (Study 2). We present thought protocols, behavioral data (quantity consumed) and observational data (number/size of bites) to support our hypotheses.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Matthew Lancellotti and Gustavo De Mello (2009), “Coping with Non-Purchase: Managing the Stress of Inaction Regret” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 463-72.

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This research presents a framework based on coping theory to explain the different ways of managing the stress of regret for inaction. We theorize that primary appraisals of goal-relevance and secondary appraisals of reversibility affect how consumers cope with the stress of inaction regret resulting in different behavioral outcomes. Prior research has focused on two outcomes of regret for inaction—inaction inertia and dissonance reduction—that result in the decreased intent to avail of a similar future opportunity. This research proposes that these are not inevitable outcomes, but rather coping responses. Further, if the forgone opportunity is appraised to be goal-relevant and reversible, consumers engage in active coping that results in increased behavioral intent.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Matthew Lancellotti and Henrik Hagtvedt (2009), “Getting a Second Chance: The Role of Imagery in the Influence of Inaction Regret on Behavioral Intent,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37 (2) 181-190.

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Prior research has demonstrated that consumers who take an opportunity and are satisfied (satisfied takers) are likely to avail of a future opportunity when it is presented again but those who forsake an opportunity and experience regret (regretful forsakers) are less likely to do so, exhibiting inaction inertia. In this research we demonstrate when and why regret for inaction may result in the intent to avail of a future opportunity and compare this intent with that of satisfied consumers. Specifically, we demonstrate in two studies that (1) when consumers forgo an opportunity and experience regret, they are motivated to avail of a similar opportunity when it is presented in the future, and (2) this intent by regretful forsakers may be more intense than that experienced by satisfied customers due to the elicitation of mental imagery regarding the anticipated consumption episode.

Labroo, Aparna and Vanessa M. Patrick (2009), “Psychological Distancing: Why Happiness Helps You See the Big Picture,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (February), 800-809. Authors alphabetical. (Press coverage included ABC News, Woman’s Day, Science Daily, among others.)

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We propose that a positive mood, by signaling that a situation is benign, might allow people to step back and take in the big picture. As a consequence, a positive mood might increase abstract construal and the adoption of abstract, future goals. In contrast, a negative mood, by signaling not only danger but also its imminence, might focus attention on immediate and proximal concerns and reduce the adoption of abstract, future goals.

Hagtvedt, Henrik and Vanessa M. Patrick (2008), “Art and the Brand: The Role of Visual Art in Enhancing Brand Extendibility,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18(July), 212-222. Authors alphabetical.

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We investigate a tool, namely visual art, which enables firms to increase the extendibility of their brands. Extant research proposes that successful brand extensions depend on favorable brand image and high perceived fit between the brand and the extension category. We propose that the presence of art has a positive influence on brand image (via a transfer of luxury perceptions from art onto the brand) and enhances perceived fit (via increased cognitive flexibility), resulting in more favorable brand extension evaluations. A pilot study and two experiments demonstrate that the presence of visual art favorably influences brand image perceptions and enhances perceptions of category fit. Mediation analysis reveals that together these factors explain the influence of visual art on brand extendibility.

Cheema, Amar and Vanessa M. Patrick (2008), “Anytime versus Only: Mindsets Moderate the Effect of Expansive versus Restrictive Frames on Promotion Evaluation,“ Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (August), 462-472. Authors alphabetical.

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Three studies demonstrate that the framing of redemption windows as expansive or restrictive, while keeping the actual length of the window constant, influences consumers' evaluations of sales promotions. When feasibility concerns are highlighted (e.g., in an implemental mindset), consumers prefer the expansive "anytime" (vs. the restrictive "only") frame. However, consumers in a deliberative mindset prefer the restrictive "only" (vs. the expansive "anytime") frame. Study 1 reveals that while the former attend more to their ability to redeem the offer, the latter are influenced more by the precision of the offer. Study 2 highlights the mediating role of these inferences on consumers' likelihood of availing the offer. Study 3 demonstrates the impact of these frames on real-world coupon redemption. The authors conclude with a discussion of the scope of this framing effect, the implications of the findings, and directions for future research.

Hagtvedt, Henrik, Reidar Hagtvedt, and Vanessa M. Patrick (2008), “The Perception and Evaluation of Visual Art,” Empirical Studies of the Arts, 26 (2), 197-218.

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Visual art is a complex stimulus. Drawing on extant theory that the interplay of affect and cognition evoked by a stimulus drives evaluations, we develop a generalizable model for the perception and evaluation of visual art. In three stages, we develop scaled measurements for the affective and cognitive components involved in the perception of visual art and present a structural equation model that integrates these components in art evaluation.

Hagtvedt, Henrik and Vanessa M. Patrick (2008), “Art Infusion: The Influence of Visual Art on the Perception and Evaluation of Consumer Products,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (June), 379-89. Authors alphabetical. (Press coverage included Business Week, NY Arts Magazine, Science Daily, Huffington Post, among others.)

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In this research, the authors investigate the phenomenon of “art infusion,” in which the presence of visual art has a favorable influence on the evaluation of consumer products through a content-independent spillover of luxury perceptions. In three studies, the authors demonstrate the art infusion phenomenon in both real-world and controlled environments using a variety of stimuli in the contexts of packaging, advertising, and product design.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Deborah J. MacInnis and C. Whan Park (2007), “Not as Happy as I Thought I’d Be: Affective Misforecasting and Product Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research, 33 (4), 479-490.

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The authors introduce the concept of affective misforecasting (AMF) and study its impact on product evaluations. Study one examines whether and when AMF affects evaluations, finding that AMF impacts evaluations when the affective experience is worse (but not when better) than forecasted. Study two tests a process model designed to understand how and why AMF influences evaluations. The extent of elaboration is shown to underlie the observed effects. The studies demonstrate the robustness of the findings by controlling for alternative factors, specifically experienced affect, expectancy-disconfirmation, and actual performance, which might impact these judgments

MacInnis, Deborah J. and Vanessa M. Patrick (2006), “A Spotlight on Affect: The Role of Affect and Affective Forecasting in Self-Regulation and Impulse Control,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol 16 (3), 224-231.

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The authors propose an alternative conceptualization to the Strack,Werth, and Deutsch (2006) model. This alternative conceptualization considers howthe forecasting of emotional outcomes linked to controlling or failing to control impulses affects self-regulatory behavior. A set of future research questions is identified based on this conceptualization. The proposed model differs from that of Strack et al. (2006) by its focus on (a) affect, (b) impulse control (versus buying), and (c) deliberative processing linked to impulse control (or lack thereof).

Patrick, Vanessa M. and C. Whan Park (2006), “Paying before Consuming: Examining the robustness of consumers’ preference for prepayment,” Journal of Retailing, 82 (3) 165-175. Lead article.  Winner of the 2008 Davidson Honorable Mention Award for the Best article in Journal of Retailing 2006 (Volume 82)

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Prior research on consumers’ preference for timing of payment suggests that consumers prefer to prepay for certain kinds of purchases (e.g., vacations) and postpay for others (e.g., washer dryers). This research extends this finding by first comparing preference for timing of payment for products that vary by type (hedonic vs. utilitarian) and durability (nondurable vs. durable) to reveal that it is only hedonic–nondurable products that elicit a preference for prepayment (study 1). The two studies that follow examine the robustness of the prepayment preference by (1) varying the favorability of the transaction (study 2), and, (2) by eliminating the choice of payment timing from the transaction (study 3). Results reveal that the preference for prepayment for hedonic–nondurable goods is robust when transaction characteristics are favorable but shifts when transaction characteristics are unfavorable. Furthermore, when the choice of payment timing is not offered, consumers become indifferent towards when they prefer to pay for hedonic–nondurable products. The implications of these findings for marketers and retailers are discussed.

MacInnis, Deborah J., Gustavo de Mello and Vanessa M. Patrick (2004), “Consumer Hopefulness: Construct, Relevance to Internet Marketing, Antecedents and Consequences,” Int. J. Internet Marketing and Advertising, 1 (2), 174-195.

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This paper examines the concept of consumer hopefulness as an important driver of consumption. Hopefulness is defined as a positive feeling evoked in response to an outcome appraised as goal congruent and possible. This positively valenced emotion arises in everyday consumption as consumers evaluate their current state and try to determine ways in which consumption can make for a better, happier future self. The paper differentiates the construct of hopefulness from related constructs such as self-efficacy, expectations, and optimism. It also focuses on the consumption domains in which hopefulness arises. Most relevant to advertising and the internet, the paper identifies factors that affect hopefulness, as well as tactics that influence these factors (and hence the level of hopefulness that consumers experience). The marketing relevant outcomes of consumer hopefulness are also articulated, and directions for future research are specified.

Folkes, Valerie S. and Vanessa M. Patrick (2003), “The Positivity Effect in Perceptions of Services: Seen One, Seen Them All?” Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (1), 125-137.

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A series of studies show converging evidence of a positivity effect in consumers’ inferences about service providers. When the consumer has little experience with a service, positive information about a single employee leads to inferences that the firm’s other service providers are similarly positive to a greater extent than negative information leads to inferences that the firm’s other service providers are similarly negative. Four studies were conducted that varied in the amount of information about the service provider, the firm, and the service. The positivity effect was supported despite differences across studies in methods as well as measures.

REFEREED BOOK CHAPTERS AND PROCEEDINGS

Hagtvedt, Henrik and Vanessa M. Patrick (2010), “Fine Arts” in the Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture, Editor Dale Southerton, Sage Publications.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2010), “Art in Advertising” in the Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd Edition, Editors Mark Runco and Steven Pritzker.

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No abstract available for this.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2010), “Luxury Branding” Chapter forthcoming in  “Next Practices in Marketing,” Editors Rajendra Srivastava and Greg Thomas.

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No abstract available for this.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Henrik Hagtvedt (2009), “Luxury Branding,” in the Handbook of Brand Relationships, Editors: Joseph Priester, Deborah J. MacInnis and C. Whan Park.

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No abstract available for this.

Chun, Hae Eun, Vanessa M. Patrick and Deborah J. MacInnis (2007), “Making Prudent versus Impulsive Choices: The Role of Anticipated Shame and Guilt on Consumer Self-Control” inAdvances in Consumer Research, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research.

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We examine the differential effects of anticipating shame vs. guilt on choice likelihood of a hedonic product. The results demonstrate that when offered a hedonic snack (chocolate cake) consumers who anticipate shame are significantly less likely to choose to consume it compared to those who anticipate guilt. Anticipating guilt also has a more circumscribed effect, impacting choice likelihood only for those consumers who are not attitudinally inclined toward the hedonic product. The results also show that anticipating guilt versus shame has different effects on anticipated happiness after lapses in self-control.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Deborah J. MacInnis (2006), “Why Feelings Stray: Affective Misforecasting Drivers of Consumer Satisfaction” inAdvances in Consumer Research, eds. Cornelia Pechmann and Linda Price, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research.

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Affective misforecasting (AMF) is defined as the gap between predicted and experienced affect. Based on prior research that examines AMF, the current study uses qualitative and quantitative data to examine the sources of AMF (i.e., why it occurs) in the consumption domain. The authors find evidence supporting some sources of AMF identified in the psychology literature, develop a fuller understanding of others, and, find evidence for novel sources of AMF not previously explored. Importantly, they find considerable differences in the sources of AMF depending on whether feelings are worse than or better than forecast.

MacInnis Deborah J.  Vanessa M. Patrick, and C. Whan Park (2005), “Looking through the Crystal Ball: The Role of Affective Forecasting and Misforecasting in Consumer Behavior,” Review of Marketing Research, Volume 2,43-79.

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A recent addition to the literature in psychology concerns individuals’ forecasts of the affective states they predict will arise in the future. Affective forecasts are extremely relevant to marketing and consumer behavior as they impact choice as well as a set of other marketing-relevant outcomes.  Interestingly, however, affective forecasts are often erroneous because they are susceptible to a variety of errors and biases that reduce their accuracy. As a result, experienced affect differs from forecasted affect, and affective misforecasting (hereafter AMF), occurs. This chapter reviews the literature on affective forecasting, indicates the importance and relevance of this area of research to consumer behavior and marketing, and identifies the factors that lead to errors in affective forecasting and hence result in affective misforecasting. Our review is designed to both illustrate the relevance of affective forecasting and misforecasting to marketing and consumer behavior and to identify novel research directions for future work in this research domain.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Matthew Lancellotti and Gustavo de Mello (2003), “Coping With It: Regretting Action vs. Inaction in the Consumer Context” inAdvances in Consumer Research, ed. Dennis Rook and Punam Anand Keller, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research.

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This paper examines the differences between regret for purchases and regret for non-purchases, through the use of both narratives and quantitative analysis. It was found that, although the regret experienced for purchases is greater than that felt for non-purchases, the latter is also significantly intense. The results also suggest that the reasons for regretting a purchase differ from those for regretting a non-purchase, even though the product types and prices were essentially the same. In addition, the coping mechanisms employed differed for the two types of regret, with regret for non-purchase requiring a greater variety of coping mechanisms.

Patrick, Vanessa M. and Valerie S. Folkes (2002), “Whodunnit? Attributing Blame in the Firestone Tire Recall,” in AMA Summer Educators' Conference Proceedings: Toward Tomorrow: Domestic, Global, Virtual Marketing, Vol. 13, ed. Jack Lindgren and Bill Kehoe, American Marketing Association, 8-13.

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Two experiments were conducted to examine consumers’ perceptions of blame in the Firestone Tire recall. The extent to which knowledge about Ford or Firestone’s role in the recall was accessible to consumers was manipulated. The results suggest that subtle cues can influence perceptions of blame of a company indirectly involved in a recall but only when consumers have considerable knowledge to draw on.

Patrick, Vanessa M., Deborah J. MacInnis and Valerie S. Folkes (2002), “Approaching What We Hope For and Avoiding What We Fear: The Role of Possible Selves in Consumer Behavior,” inAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 29, ed. Susan M. Broniarczyk and Kent Nakamoto, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, 270-276.

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This paper explores the domains in which consumers possess hoped-for and feared selves and the role of products and services in approaching hoped-for and avoiding feared selves. The results from an exploratory study indicate that consumers are able to identify products, services and activities relevant to the approach or avoidance of these possible selves and that hoped-for and feared selves exist in a variety of life-domains and are balanced for relevant life-tasks. Interesting differences also exist between males and females in the domains of hoped-for and feared selves and their reliance on products and services to realize these possible selves.

Folkes, Valerie S. and Vanessa M. Patrick (2001), “Consumers’ Perceptions of Blame in the Firestone Tire Recall” in Marketing and Public Policy Conference Proceedings: Broadening the Scope of Marketing and Public Policy, Vol. 11, ed. Ronald Paul Hill and Charles R. Taylor, American Marketing Association, 26-33.

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A survey using a convenience sample examined the relationships among blame placed on Firestone, Ford and the drivers in accidents involving Firestone tires. The amount of blame placed on one entity was unrelated to perceptions of others’ blameworthiness. Blaming Ford for the accidents predicted consumers’ desire to fine Ford, but not for more industry regulation.

 

 

Contact Information

Phone: 713-743-3661
Email: vpatrick@uh.edu
334 Melcher Hall
Houston, TX 77204-6021
Room: 385J
Office Hours:
by appointment